Study: Fully Vaccinated Healthcare Workers Carry 251 Times Viral Load, Pose Threat to Unvaccinated Patients, Co-Workers. August 23, 2021.
Researchers find long-lived immunity to 1918 pandemic virus. August 19, 2008. A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strains.
This important paper was passed to me from prominent former Framingham epidemiologist and C19 leader Dr. Andy Bostom. It is clear in healthcare workers who undoubtedly get more SARS-CoV-2 exposure than average, that there is ZERO risk of reinfection. We must drive hard to stop needless vaccination of COVID-19 survivors who are being harmed with mRNA and adenviral DNA injections. About 25% of those volunteering for vaccination in a trance have previously had the illness and recovered!
Pre-existing immunity to Covid-19 – Marc Girardot of PANDA unpacks its evolution. August 16, 2021. In this article, an equally important and powerful follow up, Girardot explores the extent and evolution of our pre-existing immunity to Covid-19. Girardot eloquently shows that before it even existed – human beings were largely immunised against Covid-19 due to cross-immunity. He underpins this assertion with numerous references to studies and research papers, one of which found that 80-98% of blood samples taken throughout the globe had cross-reactive T-cells. In simple terms, this means that 80-98% of the world population likely has a significant degree of pre-existing immunity against SARS-CoV-2, which Girardot argues is an explanation for the overall low fatality rates of Covid-19.
Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals. June 5, 2021. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. ...The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection over the next five months, among previously infected subjects who received the vaccine, was compared with those of previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated, previously uninfected subjects who received the vaccine, and previously uninfected subjects who remained unvaccinated. ...Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study.
Dr Peter McCullough with Dr Jim Meehan. A great interview worth listening for the rich information. Covers natural immunity T cell immunity which may last for 60 years vs vaccine immunity and possible vaccine harm.
What about re-infections with COVID virus? Is it common? Cellular T-cell immunity?
No! We have looked at the published evidence and can conclude based on the existing body of evidence, that reinfections are very rare, if at all and based on typically one or two instances with questionable confirmation of an actual case of re-infection e.g. flawed PCR testing etc. (references 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26). A very recent study in Qatar (Lancet) found that “natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy ~95% for at least seven months”. Hall in Lancet reported same. “The study in Austria also found that the frequency of re-infection from COVID-19 caused hospitalization in only five out of 14,840 (0.03%) people and death in one out of 14,840 (0.01%)”.
Dr. Marty Makary of Johns Hopkins wrote “reinfection is extremely rare and even when it does happen, the symptoms are very rare or [those individuals] are asymptomatic”.
Importantly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently (May 10th 2021 Scientific brief, WHO/2019-nCoV/Sci_Brief/Natural_immunity/2021.1) alluded to what has been clear for many months (one year now), which is that people are very rarely re-infected. The WHO is very late but better late than never. The key points they have stated in this briefing which stand out and warrants a mention (again we always knew this and tried informing the CDC and WHO of this across the last year) is that:
i) Within 4 weeks following infection, 90-99% of individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus develop detectable neutralizing antibodies.
ii) Available scientific data suggests that in most people immune responses remain robust and protective against reinfection for at least 6-8 months after infection (the longest follow up with strong scientific evidence is currently approximately 8 months).
iii) Studies aimed to detect immunological memory including the assessment of cellular immunity by testing for the presence of memory B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, observed robust immunity at 6 months post-infection in 95% of subjects under study, which included individuals with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe infections.
iv) Current evidence points to most individuals developing strong protective immune responses following natural infection with SARS-CoV-2.
A very recent discussion on mild COVID-19 inducing lasting antibody protection, was based on a publication in Nature. The research showed that people who have had mild illness develop antibody-producing cells that can last a lifetime. “Months after recovering from mild cases of COVID-19, people still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Such cells could persist for a lifetime, churning out antibodies all the while”.
We also wish to re-iterate the accumulated strong evidence that prior infection with other coronaviruses and common cold coronaviruses confer cellular immunity via T-cell immunity etc. (Weiskopf , Grifoni, Le Bert, Mateus, Tavukcuoglu, Cassaniti, Dykema, Echeverría, Bonifacius, Nelde, Ansari, Ma, Lineburg, Borena) (references 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14).
Indeed, the evidence now abounds that SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells as an example, are seen in unexposed individuals, suggesting preexisting cross-reactive T cell memory. “A positive response was observed up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection (median 246 days after symptom onset; range 118-362 days)… long-term SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response might accompany a waning humoral response”. Of note, SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response seems to be mainly mediated by CD4 T cells. This immunity appears also to be long-lasting e.g. SARS-1 has remained for 18 years. Of 23 patients who had SARS-1 in 2003, researchers found all 23 retained memory T cells induced by the parental SARS-1 pathogen in their systems after 17 to 18 years. Moreover, when they looked at convalescent SARS-CoV-2 patients (n=36), they uncovered that the 36 had also produced similar memory T cells.
“Results suggest that following a typical case of mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells not only persist but continuously differentiate in a coordinated fashion well into convalescence, into a state characteristic of long-lived, self-renewing memory”.
In early March 2020, a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the ski resort Ischgl in Austria initiated the spread of SARS-CoV-2 throughout Austria and Northern Europe. Follow-up shows that although antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 declined, T and B cell memory can be detected for up to 8 months.
A recent publication in Nature indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Researchers found in 77 patients with mild infection, consistently there was circulating resting memory B cells directed against the S protein and detected in the convalescent individuals. They demonstrated that “in patients who experienced mild infections (n=77), serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibodies decline rapidly in the first 4 months after infection and then more gradually over the following 7 months, remaining detectable at least 11 months after infection. Anti-S antibody titers correlated with the frequency of S-specific BMPCs obtained from bone marrow aspirates of 18 SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients 7 to 8 months after infection”.
Overall, the research showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans.
One very important piece of research emerged when researchers studied the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic. The research group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101. “The people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report. The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects. Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin”.
Additionally, Antia and colleagues looked at heterogeneity and longevity of antibody memory to viruses and vaccines. Their results found that “some individuals have, on average, slightly longer-lasting memory than others—on average, they have higher antibody levels with slower decay rates. We identified different patterns for the loss of protective levels of antibodies to different vaccine and virus antigens. Specifically, we found that for the first 25 to 50 years, virtually all individuals have protective antibody titers against diphtheria and tetanus, respectively, but about 10% of the population subsequently lose protective immunity per decade. In contrast, at the outset, not all individuals had protective titers against measles, rubella, and vaccinia. However, these antibody titers wane much more slowly, with a loss of protective immunity in only 1% to 3% of the population per decade. Our results highlight the importance of long-term longitudinal studies for estimating the duration of protective immunity and suggest both how vaccines might be improved and how boosting schedules might be reevaluated”.
Researchers have also opined that the cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 is mediated by a para (personal communication Dr Hamid A Merchant BPharm MPharm PhD RPh CQP PGCertHE FHEA SRPharmS) “cholinergic epitope on the spike activating macrophages leading to cytokine storm”. They go on to argue that this is the hidden secret (a sort of double-edged sword) explaining how the virus deregulates the immune response at one end and keeps mutating the S1 so as to enable better binding affinities to ACE2 and evade the immune response. Para “Using full spikes encoding in genetic vaccines. We now know that spikes can be freely circulating post-CoViD vaccines, this can explain the emergence of new variants”. The authors go further with a possibility that para “the vaccines itself might facilitate recombinant mutations”. “For example, if people in India are inoculated with vaccines that encode the spike of a variant from outside India, say UK, the local strains are now exposed to strains from the UK”.
In closing, we also argue that if you are re-infected, it is most likely not with the initial parental strain you were infected with and most likely with a variant. Moreover, had you developed natural exposure immunity, this is usually very robust and durable and will safeguard against variants/mutants. There are many questions at this time as to the ability of the very narrow ‘spike-specific’ immunity (spike epitopes) conferred by the mRNA and adenovirus vector delivery platforms. It is possible and highly probable that variants could blow past the existing vaccines and we are seeing this today whereby doctors report that 60% of the new COVID infections already have had both vaccination shots.
This phenomenon post vaccination warrants urgent focus by authorities and study. We also are witnessing a phenomenon whereby the immune system is depressed for approximately two weeks post vaccination with evidence of lymphopenia, leucopenia, and neutropenia. Elderly and high-risk persons must be warned about this during the informed consenting phase so that they can take precautions to not be exposed for two to three weeks post vaccination.
Paul E. Alexander, PhD, Health Research Methodologist, Evidence-Based-Medicine, Clinical epidemiologist
Please see this clip of Hannity with Dr. Martin Makary from Johns Hopkins and FOX legal analyst Gregg Jarrett on the NIAID director's willful misconduct by ignoring natural immunity and wrongfully suggesting COVID-19 recovered should be vaccinated. His deception on GOF research and the creation of the Spike protein is also not being overlooked by Jarrett. Please amplify on SM.
Love this question:
how come 200 million babies born in 2020 to 2021 in the world, and not one died due to COVID...not one death...I cant find one??? what is it that babies come with that protects them??? and if we were left alone, 'our's or a sluggish version of that 'thing' (maybe innate/mucosal???) as we are older etc., our will deal with this pathogen effectively?
From David Cullen
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogA-U3Fy6ww US SENATE ON MISINFORMATION AND PAPERS ON NATURAL IMMUNITY DOZENS AND DOZENS OF PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES TO SUPPORT THIS. 23 June 2021. https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/good-news-mild-covid-19-induces-lasting-antibody-protection/ WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE IN ST. LOUIS.
From Dr. Marc Girardot of PANDA. The Swadling paper shows healthcare workers can develop a T-cell immunity response without clinical infection or antibodies. Explains once into the pandemic there were never hospital major outbreaks. More biologic rationale for the tremendous herd immunity we are seeing in many regions. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.26.21259239v1
The NIH Director’s Blog mentions the study in this article: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/07/28/immune-t-cells-may-offer-lasting-protection-against-covid-19/. The study found lasting memory T cells 17 years after infection. This Daily Mail article addresses it in greater detail: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8529429/Could-immunity-17-YEARS-Singaporean-researchers-SARS-patients-crucial-T-cells.html.
Wednesday, Jul 14, 2021 - 07:20 PM
According to the following source:
... these are the 4 papers Sucharit Bhakdi is referring to in his 17-minute video:
1. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249499, published June 16
Human IgG and IgA responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines
SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen-specific IgG and IgA elicited by infection mediate viral neutralization and are likely an important component of natural immunity, however, limited information exists on vaccine induced responses. We measured COVID-19 mRNA vaccine induced IgG and IgA in serum serially, up to 145 days post vaccination in 4 subjects. Spike antigen-specific IgG levels rose exponentially and plateaued 21 days after the initial vaccine dose. After the second vaccine dose IgG levels increased further, reaching a maximum approximately 7–10 days later, and remained elevated (average of 58% peak levels) during the additional >100 day follow up period. COVID-19 mRNA vaccination elicited spike antigen-specific IgA with similar kinetics of induction and time to peak levels, but more rapid decline in serum levels following both the 1st and 2nd vaccine doses (<18% peak levels within 100 days of the 2nd shot). The data demonstrate COVID-19 mRNA vaccines effectively induce spike antigen specific IgG and IgA and highlight marked differences in their persistence in serum.
2. https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciab465/6279075, published May 16
Circulating SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Antigen Detected in the Plasma of mRNA-1273 Vaccine Recipients
SARS-CoV-2 proteins were measured in longitudinal plasma samples collected from 13 participants who received two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. 11 of 13 participants showed detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 protein as early as day one after first vaccine injection. Clearance of detectable SARS-CoV-2 protein correlated with production of IgG and IgA.
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces functionally diverse antibodies to NTD, RBD and S2
- Antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination target RBD, NTD, and S2
- SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces a high rate of non-neutralizing antibodies
- Crossreactive antibodies to seasonal β-coronaviruses are induced by vaccination
- Variant mutation N501Y enhances affinity to human ACE2 while E484K reduces it
4. Danish study, online since June 4: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352396421002036
SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity
Findings: We report broad serological profiles within the cohort, detecting antibody binding to other human coronaviruses. 202(>99%) participants had SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and spike-ACE2 receptor interaction blocking observed in 193(95%) individuals. A significant positive correlation (r=0.7804) between spike-ACE2 blocking antibody titers and neutralization potency was observed. Further, SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T-cell responses were clear and quantifiable in 95 of 106(90%) HLA-A2+ individuals.
Another good article about natural immunity.
Another study shows natural COVID-19 immunity lasts for ‘substantial’ period of time
The latest study adds to a growing body of literature and medical opinion indicating that natural immunity is long-lasting even without vaccination. It found an “encouraging timeline for the development and sustainability of antibodies up to ten months from natural infection.” One study, published on May 24 in Nature, found that COVID-19 infection “induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans,” with antibodies “remaining detectable at least 11 months after infection.” Another, published at BioRxiv, found that even without vaccination, antibodies in the infected “remain relatively stable from 6 to 12 months,” while “B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand dramatically after vaccination.” A third study out of Israel found that natural immunity was slightly more effective against reinfection than the Pfizer vaccine, at 94.8% versus 92.8%.