Is Natural Immunity More Long-lasting and Effective Against New SARS-COV-2 Viral Mutations?

India Delta Data Contradicts Dems’ COVID Fear/Control Campaign.  July 27, 2021. With India’s current vaccination rate of only about 6 percent, most diagnosed with Delta in that country have experienced cold-like symptoms.

"What we can conclude definitively is that strict mask-wearing (especially among health care workers) failed to stop the spread one bit," Horowitz wrote. "Yet now they have achieved herd immunity and burned out the virus with just 3% vaccination (now up to 6%) with roughly one-sixth the death rate of the U.S. and the U.K. and less than one-half that of Israel."

Analysis from 200+ doctors and scientists of the actual calculated risks of Covid "vaccine" side effects versus the risks of a Covid infection by age group.

Reported Breakthrough Cases - Covid Vaccines may be causing Antibody Dependent Enhancement and No Immunity

Interview on Ingraham Angle of Peter McCullough, MD, MPH Treatment and Natural Immunity Will See Us Through Delta Outbreak. July 23, 2021

Wednesday, July 14, 2021. Some of the voluminous evidence that prior infection confers good immunity while (Israel's Pfizer) vaccination does not

Natural infection vs vaccination: Which gives more protection?  Nearly 40% of new COVID patients were vaccinated - compared to just 1% who had been infected previously. Jul 13, 2021

Why Are Unvaccinated Children Healthier Than Vaccinated Children? By Microbiologist Brian S. Hooker, PhD, PE, Professor of Biology at Simpson University in Redding California, specializing in microbiology and biotechnology. A new peer-reviewed study suggests unvaccinated children fare better than vaccinated children. It’s received exactly zero mainstream media coverage. See Miller’s Critical Review of Vaccine Studies: 400 Important Scientific Papers Summarized for Parents and Researchers and The Journal of Translational Science article, “Health effects in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, with covariates for breastfeeding status and type of birth”  June 12, 2021.

 Unvaccinated Children Are Healthier By Dr. William H. Gaunt, NMD, and Spencer M. Gaunt, RN.  Health outcomes in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, William Gaunt, N.D., has an excellent article summarizing some of the science. See also Relative Incidence of Office Visits and Cumulative Rates of Billed Diagnoses Along the Axis of Vaccination in The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Dr. Peter McCullough Interview - COVID Vaccine Agenda & The Rush To Suppress Alternative Treatments. July 9, 2021. Joining me today is Dr. Peter McCullough, here to discuss the COVID-19 vaccine push and how this agenda has overshadowed, whether by ignorance or dishonesty, the viable and efficacious alternative treatments that many experts have been trying to call attention to since the beginning of the COVID crisis. Source Links Can Be Found Here:
https://www.thelastamericanvagabond.com/dr-peter-mccullough-interview-covid-vaccine-agenda-rush-suppress-alternative-treatments

Dr. Sucharit Bhakdi: URGENT! Some good news, and some troubling news. July 8, 2021. Dr. Bhakdi explains clearly, based on new scientific evidence:

- Your immune system is your best defence against SARS-CoV-2, and indeed all coronaviruses.
- If you have been infected, even if you experienced no symptoms at all, you are immune to all variants.
- We have already reached herd immunity.
- There is no scientific reason to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2. There is simply no benefit and the rollout must be stopped.

Scientific literature references for Dr. Bhakdi's presentation:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352396421002036 (v important DK)

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249499 v. imp. IgG IgA

response to mRNA vacc. +++

https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciab465/6279075 (key spike and IgG after vacc)

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.005 (third IgG response to vaccine paper)

Interview with Marc Girardot: Natural ImmunityJuly 5, 2021 Natural immunity vs Covid-19 vaccine-induced immunity – an Interview with Marc Girardot from PANDA

Pre-existing polymerase-specific T cells expand in abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2 infection. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.26.21259239  July 1, 2021. This  Swadling paper shows healthcare workers can develop a T-cell immunity response without clinical infection or antibodies. Explains once into the pandemic there were never hospital major outbreaks. More biologic rationale for the tremendous herd immunity we are seeing in many regions.

Unvaccinated Children Are Healthier. July 2, 2021. People favor information which reinforces their pre-existing beliefs and avoid contradictory information. This is called “Selective Exposure Theory.” People reject information contrary to their beliefs. But the truth is that vaccines are dangerous. We are over-vaccinating America’s children. And unvaccinated children are far healthier than vaccinated children. Read about some of the studies and data.

Data analysis: Oh Stop The Stupid!  The screamfest on "variants!" when it comes to Covid, especially Delta, is outrageous. June 23, 2021.  There is utterly no reason to be afraid of the Delta "variant" unless you are scared of the sniffles.

06/16/21 Physician: ‘Fanaticism’ — Not Science — Governs CDC’s Aggressive Push to Vaccinate Even Those With Natural Immunity Public health insiders increasingly are calling out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention over the “insanity” of pushing COVID vaccines on people who have already acquired natural immunity.

Previously infected people ‘unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination’: study   The researchers called ‘into question the necessity to vaccinate those who have already had SARS-CoV-2 infection.’ Jun 11, 2021

video: Former CSO/VP of Allergy And Respiratory Research, Pfizer, Inc. Michael Yeadon talks about the lies we've been told re. COVID and SARS-COV-2, including about natural immunity and vaccines.  June 10, 2021. The start of his interview is at about 1 h 30 m in this video: https://thehighwire.com/videos/episode-219-in-harms-way/

Fauci's Doubletalk on Treatment, Lockdowns, Masks, Immunity, & More. June 4, 2021. Rumble Laura Ingraham's "Medicine Cabinet," featuring Peter McCullough, MD, MPH; Harvey Risch, MD, PhD; & Jay Bhattacharya, MD, PhD, discuss what Tony Fauci got wrong on a myriad of COVID related policies... and the disastrous results.

Necessity of COVID-19 Vaccination in Previously Infected Individuals: A Retrospective Cohort Study. June 1, 2021.  by Nabin K. Shrestha, Patrick C. Burke, Amy S. Nowacki, Paul Terpeluk, Steven M. Gordon  doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.01.21258176  A  prominent former Framingham epidemiologist and C19 leader Dr. Andy Bostom. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection remained almost zero among previously infected unvaccinated subjects.  Thus, it is clear in healthcare workers who undoubtedly get more SARS-CoV-2 exposure than average, that there is ZERO risk of reinfection. Vaccination of COVID-19 survivors who are being harmed with mRNA and adenviral DNA injections. About 25% of those volunteering for vaccination have previously had the illness and recovered!   Preprint from medRxiv, 04 Jun 2021  "Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study."

Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity — Antibody testing and proof of prior infection can allow more people to return to normal by Jeffrey Klausner, MD, MPH, and Noah Kojima, MD. May 28, 2021

The New York Times Concedes Natural Immunity Lasts for Years, Maybe Forever. May 27, 2021

Dan JM, Mateus J, Kato Y, Hastie KM, Yu ED, Faliti CE, et al. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. Science [Internet]. 2021 Feb 5;371(6529). Available
from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abf4063

Turner JS, Kim W, Kalaidina E, Goss CW, Rauseo AM, Schmitz AJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Nature [Internet]. 2021 May 24; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4

Breton G, Mendoza P, Hagglof T, Oliveira TY, Schaefer-Babajew D, Gaebler C, et al. Persistent Cellular Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Dec 9; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.08.416636

Hall VJ, Foulkes S, Charlett A, Atti A, Monk EJM, Simmons R, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN). Lancet [Internet]. 2021 Apr 17;397(10283):1459–69. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00675-9

COVID infection elicits long-lasting immunity, nullifying worldwide vaccine push: study. 'We found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for the rest of people’s lives. That’s strong evidence for long-lasting immunity.' May 31, 2021

-- Bertoletti et al., Oxford Open Immunology, February 23, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfimm/iqab006
"Data now suggest that the majority of infected individuals develop robust and long-lasting T cell immunity, which has implications for the durability of immunity and future vaccine approaches....
"That the majority of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were activated by non-S [non-spike protein] viral epitopes has implications for vaccination in populations that have experienced prior SARS-CoV-2 infections."
-- Jagannathan and Wang, Nature Immunology, April 19, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00923-3
"Overall, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans."
-- Turner et al., Nature, May 24, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4
"Many people who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 will probably make antibodies against the virus for most of their lives. So suggest researchers who have identified long-lived antibody-producing cells in the bone marrow of people who have recovered from COVID-19.
"The study provides evidence that immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection will be extraordinarily long-lasting...."
-- Callaway, Nature, May 27, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-01442-9

"Overall, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans."
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03647-4

Johns Hopkins professor says 'ignore the CDC' — 'natural immunity works'. May 27, 2021.

Podcast with Geert Vanden Bossche & Bret Weinstein. Apr 22, 2021. Innate versus adaptive immunity are described. Immune escape is described. Vaccinated people are shedding and spreading the virus. Geert Vanden Bossche is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine who has specialist expertise in virology and vaccinology, Geert has worked in industry in the construction of vaccines, and in the non profit sector working to bring immunity to larger numbers of people. Find Geert on his website: https://www.geertvandenbossche.org/

ICAN DEMANDS CALIFORNIA LIFT RESTRICTIONS ON INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE RECOVERED FROM COVID-19. May 4, 2021. Recently, California has announced changes to its Blueprint for a Safer Economy.  These updates include additional “freedoms” afforded to those who have been vaccinated with no mention of those who have already had and recovered from COVID-19. ... Given that the immunity offered by having had COVID-19 is more efficacious and more robust than from the vaccine, ICAN explained to California that its policy of loosening restrictions for those that have been vaccinated for COVID-19, but not for those that have had COVID-19, is unscientific and illegal.  In contrast to having had COVID-19, there is noevidence to prove that the COVID-19 vaccines prevent infection or transmission.

It is not a conspiracy theory to say the human immune system works.Recovered from Covid-19? Your immune system may fight coronavirus variants. Instead of producing antibodies all the time, the immune system creates memory B cells that recognise the coronavirus, and quickly unleash a new round of antibodies. January 26, 2021

January 26, 2021. Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19

Eminent doc: Media censored COVID-19 early treatment options that could have reduced fatalities by 85%. Dr. Peter McCullough also explained that given an 80% level of herd immunity, broad vaccination has ‘no scientific, clinical or safety rationale.’ Thu Apr 8, 2021 ... “People who develop COVID have complete and durable immunity. And (that’s) a very important principle: complete and durable. You can't beat natural immunity. You can't vaccinate on top of it and make it better. There's no scientific, clinical or safety rationale for ever vaccinating a COVID-recovered patient. There's no rationale for ever testing a COVID-recovered patient,” he continued... “My wife and I are COVID-recovered. Why do we go through the testing outside? There's absolutely no rationale (for such testing).” ... “There's plenty of COVID-recovered patients. Let them forgo the vaccine and let people who are clamoring for it get it. But at 80 percent herd immunity, in the vaccine trials fewer than one percent … in the placebo actually get COVID. Fewer than one percent. The vaccine is going to have a one percent public health impact. That's what the data says. It's not going to save us, we’re already 80 percent herd immune,” he said.

Britain Will Achieve Herd Immunity on Monday. April 8, 2021.

Video: Former Pfizer Vice President & Chief Science Officer Mike Yeadon

“The most likely duration of immunity to a respiratory virus like SARS CoV-2 is multiple years. Why do I say that? We actually have the data for a virus that swept through parts of the world seventeen years ago called SARS, and remember SARS CoV-2 is 80% similar to SARS, so I think that’s the best comparison that anyone can provide.

“The evidence is clear: These very clever cellular immunologists studied all the people they could get hold of who had survived SARS 17 years ago. They took a blood sample, and they tested whether they responded or not to the original SARS and they all did; they all had perfectly normal, robust T cell memory. They were actually also protected against SARS CoV-2, because they’re so similar; it’s cross immunity.

“So, I would say the best data that exists is that immunity should be robust for at least 17 years. I think it’s entirely possible that it is lifelong. The style of the responses of these people’s T cells were the same as if you’ve been vaccinated and then you come back years later to see if that immunity has been retained. So I think the evidence is really strong that the duration of immunity will be multiple years, and possibly lifelong.

How Broad is Covid Immunity?  March 2021

  How Worried Should We Be About the Variants? March 2021. by Dr Michael Yeadon, Scientific Board member of Panda, Expert in Allergy & Respiratory (A&R) Therapeutic/PhD in Biochemistry and Toxicology, Former Chief Scientific Officer at Pfizer A&R unit/CEO and Founder of Ziarco, 25 years experience in Drug Discovery/40 Full Papers/63 Abstracts/two Books/six Patents and Marc Girardot, Member of Panda, Senior Advisor in Biotech & Automotive/INSEAD MBA, Advisor to an anti-Cancer therapeutic vaccine company/Ex-Global Lead of Cisco’s IBSG Automotive, 30 years of experience in Industry, High Tech and Biotech/two Patents.  Snippets include:

To date, no robust scientific evidence proves that any of the variants identified are more transmissible or deadly than the original... Prior immunity gained from the original SARS-CoV-2 should work perfectly well against any new ‘mutant variant’, given the 99.7% sequence similarity.... mRNA vaccines currently used for vaccination – Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna – present the immune system with a large repertoire of targets, if not quite as large as a natural immune response. This is even more true of more traditional vaccines – Russia’s Sputnik and China’s Sinovac – which present an even wider repertoire. ... Many seem to have benefited from a form of immunity even though they had never met the actual virus, nor been vaccinated. These have gained their immunity from past epidemics and make up the large contingent of asymptomatics. The Tübingen University Hospital near Stuttgart, Germany found as much as 81% of its samples were carrying pre-existing specific T cells. Most likely, past common cold coronaviruses have – in effect – played an immunisation role against SARS-CoV-2. The same immunological mechanism has been proven to exist for influenza also... Some are advocating the vaccination of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Natural immunisation being the ultimate form of vaccination, we see absolutely no scientific nor medical justification for such a procedure. Even past infections by other forms of common cold coronaviruses have been found to protect from SARS-CoV-2. Injecting a vaccine should never be considered a trivial event. The decision should be based on a well thought out risk-benefit analysis... The evidence above supports that immunity evasion – though a theoretical possibility – is very unlikely. Mutant variants, emerging overseas or domestically, are an inevitable biological reality once a virus is in the population. Closing international borders will not stop new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating in the population. It is a futile endeavour with no scientific basis ... Although vaccines could be helpful for patients with mildly deficient immune systems, they would most likely not save very old patients with advanced immune senescence. Thus overconfidence in vaccine effectiveness for the very old could be a major risk, and mitigation treatments and immune boosting strategies should instead be contemplated.

Amish community in Pennsylvania becomes first in US to achieve herd immunity after reopening churches led to 90% of households being infected with the virus last year March 2021

  • The Plain community in Lancaster County has become the 'first to achieve herd immunity,' according to a local administrator of a medical center in the area 
  • Allen Hoover of the Parochial Medical Center said that 90% of households became infected with virus when they resumed church services late last spring
  • As Hoover observed, faith in herd immunity prompted members of community to relax on key mitigation efforts such as masking and social distancing

Immunity & COVID-19 - British Society for Immunology February 2021

Israeli study boosts belief post-COVID immunity stays when antibodies fade Massive immune response witnessed when small cohort of previously infected people get 1st COVID-19 vaccine dose, indicating they are well ahead of the game, Bar-Ilan team says. By Nathan Jeffay February 2021   https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.6.2100096

COVID 19 Immunity Research. You could be IMMUNE to COVID. Medicine with Dr. Moran. September 2020.

The Innate Immune System webinar and live Q&A with Dr. Zach Bush, Dr. Cindy Fallon, Dr. John Gildea, Dr. Lee Cowden and Dr. Peter Cummings. Jan 18, 2021. A break down of the intricacies and beauty of how our innate immune system functions and flows, unearthed empowering facts on the latest scientific findings on the virome, historical framing of germ warfare and how it applies to today’s mindset toward the pandemic and so much more from top experts across various fields within the human health realm. View the full feature on the Innate Immune System along with resources mentioned in this webinar: https://zachbushmd.com/innate-immune-... If you are looking to dive deeper and prioritize your health, sign up for the Intrinsic Health Series: https://www.intrinsichealthseries.com Knowledge Base : SLEEP module: View the webinar replay, video and blog on how critical sleep is to your immune health: https://zachbushmd.com/knowledge-sleep/

Human immune system has a 99.74% success rate against COVID19 Alex Jones with Del Bigtree, August 2020

How ‘killer’ T cells could boost COVID immunity in face of new variants. In the race against emerging coronavirus variants, researchers are looking beyond antibodies for clues to lasting protection from COVID-19. February 2021.

Scientists uncover SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in recovered COVID-19 and SARS patients July 16, 2020. by Duke-NUS Medical School

Good News: Natural Immunity to the Coronavirus May Last Years, Study Suggests January 2021.

How Long Could Covid-19 Immunity Last? It's Not Just About Antibodies June 2020

Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections  Quan-Xin Long, Xiao-Jun Tang, Qiu-Lin Shi, Qin Li, Hai-Jun Deng, Jun Yuan, Jie-Li Hu, Wei Xu, Yong Zhang, Fa-Jin Lv, Kun Su, Fan Zhang, Jiang Gong, Bo Wu, Xia-Mao Liu, Jin-Jing Li, Jing-Fu Qiu, Juan Chen & Ai-Long Huang   in Nature Medicine

Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection  Jennifer M. Dan, Jose Mateus, Yu Kato1, Kathryn M. Hastie, Esther Dawen Yu, Caterina E. Faliti, Alba Grifoni, Sydney I. Ramirez, Sonya Haupt, April Frazier, Catherine Nakao, Vamseedhar Rayaprolu, Stephen A. Rawlings, Bjoern Peters, Florian Krammer, Viviana Simon, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Davey M. Smith, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3563Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Shane Crotty in Science  Feb 2021:

Singapore: COVID-19 Patients Have T-Cell Immunity August 2020. By NEWS WIRE

Immune system’s T cells can mount attacks against many coronavirus targets — even on new variants, LJI says By La Jolla Institute for Immunology. January 2021. A new study led by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology suggests that T cells try to fight SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, by targeting a broad range of sites on the virus. By attacking the virus from many angles, the body has the tools to potentially recognize different SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Opinion: People who previously had covid-19 should go to the back of the vaccine line January 2021

Covid-19: Do many people have pre-existing immunity? British Medical Journal 2020; 370 doi: September 2020  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3563

Impact of age, ethnicity, sex and prior infection status on immunogenicity following a single dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: real-world evidence from healthcare workers, Israel, December 2020 to January 2021

How Long Could Covid-19 Immunity Last? It's Not Just About Antibodies Ed Cara June 2020

Good News: Natural Immunity to the Coronavirus May Last Years, Study Suggests  January 2021

Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers Dec.2020. Sheila F. Lumley, B.M., B.Ch., Denise O’Donnell, B.Sc., Nicole E. Stoesser, M.B., B.S., D.Phil., Philippa C. Matthews, F.R.C.P., D.Phil., Alison Howarth, Ph.D., Stephanie B. Hatch, Ph.D., Brian D. Marsden, D.Phil., Stuart Cox, Tim James, Ph.D., Fiona Warren, B.Sc., Liam J. Peck, D.Phil., Thomas G. Ritter, B.A., Zoe de Toledo, M.Sc., Laura Warren, David Axten, B.A., Richard J. Cornall, M.D., D.Phil., E. Yvonne Jones, D.Phil., David I. Stuart, Ph.D., Gavin Screaton, B.M., B.Ch., D.Phil., Daniel Ebner, B.Sc., Sarah Hoosdally, Ph.D., Meera Chand, M.B., B.S., Derrick W. Crook, F.R.C.Path., Anne-Marie O’Donnell, M.B., B.S., Christopher P. Conlon, M.D., Koen B. Pouwels, Ph.D., A. Sarah Walker, Ph.D., Tim E.A. Peto, F.R.C.P., Susan Hopkins, F.R.C.P., Timothy M. Walker, M.B., B.S., D.Phil. Katie Jeffery, F.R.C.Path., Ph.D., and David W. Eyre, B.M., B.Ch., D.Phil. for the Oxford University Hospitals Staff Testing Group*

Research finds best evidence of coronavirus immunity after infection By Yen Makabenta August 2020

A 2020 Study Revealed: Unvaccinated Children are Healthier than Vaccinated Children by James Herer

Vaccines can sometimes cause the disease they are supposed to eradicate: the world is currently facing an increasing spread of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks across parts of Africa, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. March 2020

Do some people have protection against the coronavirus? By Dr. Sanjay Gupta and Andrea Kane, CNN. August 2, 2020. Immunity is comprised of not just antibodies but various T cells -- cells that act as "memory" to foreign invaders.  The good news, when it comes to this coronavirus, is that people who have never had any exposure to this virus may actually have some T-cell reactivity. A study that looked at blood that was collected between 2015 and 2018, well before the first Covid-19 infection, found some people had T cells that reacted to the virus.

We could ‘beat’ COVID-19 before a vaccine is ready By Alex Berenson  August 25, 2020

Herd Immunity May Be Slowing Spread in U.S., As Study Finds 40 Percent Community Infection Provides Protection By Aristos Georgiou On 8/14/20

New York’s latest COVID antibody survey shows a rise in the Bronx and minority communities  June 16, 2020 By Dana Schulz

Johns Hopkins Doctor Thinks COVID Will Be Largely Gone By April, Half of U.S. Has Herd Immunity By Katherine Fung On 2/19/21

Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, and Free State provinces of South Africa in January 2021 Extrapolating from antibody testing on blood donors, the researchers found antibody levels of 63% in Eastern Cape province (EC), 46% in Free State (FS), 52% in KwaZulu Natal (ZN) and 32% in Northern Cape (NC). These figures were between 15 and 22 times higher than the percentage of the population that had tested positive for the virus to date.

... there is nothing unusual about a COVID-19 epidemic going into spontaneous decline, even with antibody prevalence much lower than in South Africa. Places with few restrictions such as Sweden, Florida and South Dakota have also seen spikes fall almost as quickly as they have risen, and at much lower antibody levels – and in the middle of winter, too.

According to an Office of National Statistics survey published today, more than half of people in England now have Covid antibodies. MailOnline has more.