Natural Immunity Explained - Why COVID-19 Vaccines Take the Wrong Approach Strong antibody response correlates w/ more SEVERE clinical disease while strong T-cell response is linked w/ LESS severe disease.
Go here https://www.t-detect.com/ to get a T-test to see if you already have immunity from a previous SARS-COV-2 infection, but it is only available in the US for now. Also, https://www.aditxtscore.com/get-tested/ tests for immunity to the SARS-COV-2 virus in some US states:
- Is there evidence of prior exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus or vaccine?
- Is there evidence that a robust immune response developed?
- Is there evidence this immune response can protect against COVID-19?
Vaccine 'passports' must give credit for natural immunity
IgG and IgG/IgM antibody serology testing. People not presently experiencing signs or symptoms may undergo an IgG or IgG/IgM antibody serology test via blood draw. The FDA has authorized the intended use of these antibody tests as aids in identifying individuals with an adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), indicating recent or prior infection.
CDC hiding the number of naturally-immune to Covid-19 October 26, 2021.
Progressive Commentary Hour – Dr. Jessica Rose We are being lied to. Dr. Jessica Rose is an immunologist and molecular biologist who has specialized in computational biology and the bio-mechanisms behind pathogenic infections. Her research and publications include investigating hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, HIV, and anthrax. Dr. Rose is a graduate of the University of Newfoundland and Labrador, and received her doctorate from Bar Illan University in Israel. Dr Rose has now written and co-authored several important papers analyzing the data of Covid-19 vaccine injuries and deaths reported in the Centers for Disease Control’s Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System or VAERS. She also has a paper pending publication co-authored with Dr. Peter McCullough who will be guest on the program on Friday.
What happens if Israel fails the stress test? An article by G. Vanden Bossche. October 17, 2021. ... from an immunological viewpoint, it is difficult to understand how a rapid recall of the very same anti-S Abs in a previously vaccine-primed population would now, all of a sudden enable better protection from infection and disease. ...
Given the more potent neutralizing Abs booster shots are generating against variants (5), the S(pike)-directed immune pressure in the population will only continue to rise while still failing to curtail the spread of the predominantly circulating highly infectious SARS-CoV-2 variant (e.g., Delta variant). On the contrary, it would be reasonable to assume that upon an additional booster shot the more potent Abs further contribute to selecting S-directed immune escape variants and, therefore, turn the previously primed population in an even more fertile breeding ground for the highly infectious Delta variant. As vaccine-elicited Ab responses have a much longer duration (and can be memorized) than that induced by short-term innate immune activation, and as vaccinal Abs suppress the functional capacity of pre-existing CoV-reactive innate Abs, short-term vaccine-mediated innate immune protection against viral infection or disease does not automatically imply a positive effect of the vaccine on viral infection or morbidity rates in the longer term. Interpretations from scientists who only conduct short-term surveillance studies in vaccinees, the majority of whom are adults or elderly, lead to erroneous, although peer-reviewed conclusions such as: ‘Although vaccines are less effective against asymptomatic disease or against transmission than against severe disease, even in populations with fairly high vaccination rates the unvaccinated are still the major drivers of transmission and are themselves at the highest risk of serious disease’ (6). This clearly illustrates their lack of understanding of the contribution of innate immunity in providing short-term protection after vaccination, and in the more durable protection of young and healthy unvaccinated age groups.
Based on all of the above, it is reasonable to expect booster injections to only enable the virus to more rapidly evolve resistance to the vaccines. This evolution would be dramatically expedited by vaccinating and boosting more and more younger age groups. More potent anti-S Abs induced by additional booster injections will further erode their innate Ab-mediated immunity and accelerate the pace at which SARS-CoV-2 evolves from more infectious variants into variants that increasingly escape from neutralizing anti-S Abs.
Antibodies Persist with Natural Immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Oct 11, 2021
10/07/21 Fully Vaccinated Countries Had Highest Number of New COVID Cases, Study Shows. The authors of a study published Sept. 30, in the European Journal of Epidemiology Vaccines said the sole reliance on vaccination as a primary strategy to mitigate COVID-19 and its adverse consequences “needs to be re-examined.”
It’s no longer the pandemic of the unvaccinated. How and why has it come to this point? Oct 4 Why Most Covid-19 Cases Are Now Coming From the Vaccinated in Some Regions
October 05, 2021. No Significant Difference in Viral Load Between Vaccinated and Unvaccinated, Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Groups Infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.28.21264262 We found no significant difference in cycle threshold values between vaccinated and unvaccinated, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta.
Natural versus vaccine immunity. Oct 2, 2021. Dr. John Campbell. Lists 7 reference studies. Focus solely on antibodies is a red herring. Memory B cells against SARS-CoV-2 spike increased between 1 month and 8 months after infection. Proportion of subjects positive for CD4+ T cells (92%) remained high at 6 to 8 months after infection.
AI-powered DoD Data Analysis Program Named “Project Salus” SHATTERS Official Vaccine Narrative, Shows Vaccine Effectiveness Wanes Quickly in the Fully Vaccinated with Each Passing Week! October 1, 2021. The alarming findings show that the vast majority of covid hospitalizations are occurring among fully-vaccinated individuals and that outcomes among the fully vaccinated are growing worse with each passing week. ... the treatment intervention (mRNA vaccines) is worsening health outcomes and leading to excess hospitalizations and deaths. ... These data ... shatter the official Biden / Fauci narrative that falsely claims America is experiencing, “a pandemic of the unvaccinated.” The data show that the pandemic actually appears to be accelerated by covid-19 vaccines, while unvaccinated individuals are having far better outcomes than the vaccinated. See the DoD slides: https://www.naturalnews.com/files/Salus_Humetrix_VE_study_2021_09_28.pdf or see attached (from naturalnews.com)
video: Board-certified pathologist, Ryan Cole, MD, explains how Pfizer’s Covid-19 mRNA vaccine reprograms innate immune responses. Get the science: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.03.21256520v1
The COVID vaccines do not stop infections or spread. They increase it. This chart shows that the proportion of hospitalized serious COVID cases have been greater than the number of unvaccinated hospitalized COVID cases since mid-May 2021. We were being lied to by CDC/NIAID and President Biden. Attorney Thomas Renz shows these Leaked US Department of Defense (DOD) COVID files:
Del Bigtree. BOOSTER SHOT IN THE DARK. September 27, 2021. Over 60% of critical patients were double vaccinated and over 40% of deaths were. The vaccine immunity is waning.
National study of COVID-19 Natural Immunity in Unvaccinated Persons [led by an avid proponent of Covid vaccines]
The National Study of COVID-19 Natural Immunity in Unvaccinated Persons (IRB00295352) is being led by a research team of surgeons, infectious disease doctors and epidemiologists at Johns Hopkins. The principal investigator is Dorry Segev, MD PhD, Associate Vice Chair of Surgery at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Segev’s research uses advanced statistical methods for mathematical modeling and simulation of medical data, analysis of large healthcare datasets, and outcomes research. Dr. Segev has partnered with Marty Makary, MD MPH, Chief of the Johns Hopkins Islet Transplant Center. Dr. Makary’s research focuses on the creation and evaluation of new health care innovations. He is also a leading voice for physicians, writing in The Wall Street Journal, and is the author of The New York Times best-selling book Unaccountable.
The purpose of this study is to determine COVID-19 antibody levels in people who have not had a COVID vaccine. The study does not provide the vaccine and study team members will not be offering guidance or medical advice as to whether or not one should receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. If participants are interested in the study, they will be asked to complete a brief questionnaire and provide a blood sample which will be tested for antibodies. The study team will share the results with the participants if they wish.
We are now enrolling healthy individuals who have not had a COVID vaccine. For more information, you may email our study team at email@example.com.
Molecular evidence indicates that children must be considered already immune and fully vaccinated: there is no need for COVID vaccines in children Biological and molecular evidence why children are effectively COVID immune and can be considered already vaccinated. September 20, 2021 Patel and Bunyavanich (ACE 2 receptor research that showed the limited expression in children), Loske (showing that pre-activated antiviral innate immunity (mucosal compartment) in the upper airways of children),Yang (showing children have memory B cells that can bind to SARS-CoV-2, indicating the potent role of early (prior) childhood exposure to common cold coronaviruses), Weisberg and Farber et al. (showing children T cells are relatively naïve and mostly untrained, and thus a better capacity to respond to novel viruses), and by Galow (showing children do not spread to other children, while it is adults who spread to children).
17 September 2021. COVID vaccine immunity is waning — how much does that matter?
Episode 233: THE VAERS SCANDAL Del Bigtree. Sept. 16, 2021. Pharma’s ‘Natural Immunity’ Problem; Jeffery and Del Deconstruct Biden’s Misinformed Address to the Nation; Exclusive Interview with Respected Hospitalist PA Exposes Potential Massive Fraud on the Frontlines; NY Protesters send message, “It’s Time to Make a Stand.” Guest: Deborah Conrad, PA-C
COVID Delta Variant May Become Completely Resistant To Vaccines Says Japanese Study. September 15, 2021. According to a Japanese study, the COVID Delta variant may soon acquire complete resistance to vaccines.
09/14/21 Vaccinating People Who Have Had COVID-19: Why Doesn’t Natural Immunity Count in the U.S.? The CDC estimates that SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 100 million Americans, and evidence is mounting that natural immunity is at least as protective as vaccination.
COVID Delta Variant Spread Driven by Combination of Immune Escape and Increased Infectivity. September 8, 2021
Immunity induced by Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine declines with time, Mayo Clinic study finds Sep 8 2021
Delta Variant Death Rate Among Vaccinated Over 5 Times HIGHER Than the Unvaccinated in England. by Dr. Joel S. Hirschhorn. September 3, 2021
Study: COVID recovery gave Israelis longer-lasting Delta defense than vaccines. September 2, 2021. The variant was 27 times more likely to break through Pfizer protection from January-February and cause symptoms than it was to penetrate natural immunity from the same period
Exclusive: Joel S. Hirschhorn cites studies showing superior status of the COVID-recovered By Joel S. Hirschhorn September 1, 2021
Waning immunity of the BNT162b2 vaccine: A nationwide study from Israel. August 30, 2021.
08/30/21. Fully Vaccinated With Pfizer? You’re 6 to 13 Times More Likely to Get Delta Than Someone With Natural Immunity, Study Says. In the largest real-world observational study comparing natural immunity gained through previous SARS-CoV-2 infection to vaccine-induced immunity afforded by the Pfizer vaccine ...
Previous Covid Prevents Delta Infection Better Than Pfizer Shot. August 27, 2021. People who recovered from a bout of Covid-19 during one of the earlier waves of the pandemic appear to have a lower risk of contracting the delta variant than those who got two doses of the vaccine from Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech SE.
Contracting and beating COVID provides better protection against delta variant than Pfizer shot, new research shows. August 27, 2021.
Having SARS-CoV-2 once confers much greater immunity than a vaccine—but no infection parties, please. Aug. 26, 2021 Nussenzweig’s group has published data showing people who recover from a SARS-CoV-2 infection continue to develop increasing numbers and types of coronavirus-targeting antibodies for up to 1 year. By contrast, he says, twice-vaccinated people stop seeing increases “in the potency or breadth of the overall memory antibody compartment” a few months after their second dose.
Natural immunity is stronger than vaccination, study suggests. 26 August 2021. Their findings were stark: double-jabbed, previously uninfected people are 13 times as likely to get Covid compared with the naturally immune. Natural infection was also found to significantly reduce the risk of catching symptomatic disease and of being hospitalised with Covid ...
Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections. August 25, 2021. The Pfizer vaccinated have 7 times higher risk of symptomatic COVID and are at greater risk of COVID hospitalizations than someone with natural immunity.
evidence of waning natural immunity was demonstrated, though SARS-CoV-2 naïve vaccinees had a 5.96-fold (95% CI, 4.85 to 7.33) increased risk for breakthrough infection and a 7.13-fold (95% CI, 5.51 to 9.21) increased risk for symptomatic disease. SARS-CoV-2-naïve vaccinees were also at a greater risk for COVID-19-related-hospitalizations compared to those that were previously infected.
Conclusions This study demonstrated that natural immunity confers longer lasting and stronger protection against infection, symptomatic disease and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.
video description: Natural Immunity VS Enhanced Immunity: New Data from Israel. Aug 30, 2021. Found 13 times more vaccine breakthrough cases than natural immunity reinfections.
Horowitz: 15 studies that indicate natural immunity from prior infection is more robust than the COVID vaccines August 25, 2021
August 25, 2021 OPED by Daniel Horowitz: 15 studies that indicate natural immunity from prior infection is more robust than the COVID vaccines https://www.theblaze.com/op-ed/horowitz-15-studies-that-indicate-natural-immunity-from-prior-infection-is-more-robust-than-the-covid-vaccines
Vaccinated Becoming Persons of Interest. Podcast by Dr. Peter McCullough | Aug 23, 2021. Our CDC director and recent studies have shown that the vaccinated not only can become ill will COVID-19 in the setting of vaccine failure, but they can also carry the virus in very high viral loads in the early symptomatic phase and, in this context, can become individual super-spreaders. So indeed, we are in a crisis of the vaccinated, who are directionally have lower rates of COVID-19 illness but passing it to unvaccinated victims who develop the syndrome. ... Fernando Kreutz. M.D., Ph.D., of FK Biotecnologia in Porto Alegre in Brazil who will do a deep dive into the spike protein, epitopes, and antibody responses. On the backside, we have a complete opposite view of the biotechnology complex in “Kedarji,” who is both a spiritual leader, as well as a holistic health and well-being practitioner and research scientist who has made the commitment to do all he can from his center in Ohio.
Doctor Speaks Out — Media is lying, CDC admits that natural immunity is much stronger than Vaccine… August 23, 2021
Ultrapotent antibodies against diverse and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants August 13, 2021.
video: IS DELTA MORE DANGEROUS FOR KIDS? August 23, 2021. As summer ends and kids head back to school, a renewed frenzy has been triggered by media and public health experts, claiming children are in grave danger from the delta variant. In the face of growing fear, we look to the data from the CDC, AAP, and state health departments to drill down to the truth.
08/23/21. Study: Fully Vaccinated Healthcare Workers Carry 251 Times Viral Load, Pose Threat to Unvaccinated Patients, Co-Workers. A preprint paper by the prestigious Oxford University Clinical Research Group, published Aug. 10 in The Lancet, found vaccinated individuals carry 251 times the load of COVID-19 viruses in their nostrils compared to the unvaccinated. By Peter A. McCullough, M.D., MPH
Significant reduction in humoral immunity among healthcare workers and nursing home residents 6 months after COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. David H. Canaday, Oladayo A. Oyebanji, Debbie Keresztesy, Michael Payne, Dennis Wilk, Lenore Carias, Htin Aung, Kerri St. Denis, Evan C. Lam, Christopher F. Rowley, Sarah D. Berry, Cheryl M. Cameron, Mark J. Cameron, Brigid Wilson, Alejandro B. Balazs, Christopher L. King, Stefan Gravenstein. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.15.21262067 Anti-spike, anti-RBD and neutralization levels dropped more than 80% over 6 months’ time in all groups irrespective of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. At 6 months post-vaccine, 72% of the infection-naive NH residents had neutralization titers at or below the lower limit of detection compared to 16% at 2 weeks after full vaccination. These data demonstrate a significant reduction in levels of antibody in all groups. [notice: comparing this study to others, natural immunity may be negatively impacted by the vaccination.]
Covid-19 natural immunity compared to vaccine-induced immunity: The definitive summary. August 6, 2021
Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells. July 20, 2021.
August 22, 2021. Large-scale study of antibody titer decay following BNT162b2
mRNA vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection In vaccinated subjects, antibody titers decreased by up to 40% each subsequent month while in convalescents they decreased by less than 5% per month. Six months after BNT162b2 vaccination 16.1% subjects had antibody levels below the seropositivity threshold of <50 AU/mL, while only 10.8% of convalescent patients were below <50 AU/mL threshold after 9 months from SARS-CoV-2 infection. [note: However, It is in the Memory B & T cells that can be recalled after a reinfection to produce both IgMs, IgGs etc to initially counter and to invoke the killer T cells.] https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.19.21262111 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.19.21262111v1.full.pdf
1.) The ACE 2 receptor that the virus uses to gain entry to the host cell, has limited (less) expression and presence in the nasal epithelium in young children (potentially in upper respiratory airways); this explain partly why children are less likely to be infected in the first place, or spread it to other children or adults, or even get severely ill; the apparatus is simply not there as reported by Patel and Bunyavanich.
2) When one is vaccinated or get infected naturally, this drives the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells which is key to encoding humoral immune memory. There is research evidence by Yang published in Science (May 2021) that blood examined from children retrieved prior to COVID-19 pandemic have memory B cells that can bind to SARS-CoV-2, indicating the potent role of early childhood exposure to common cold coronaviruses (coronaviruses). It underscores the importance of early childhood B cell clonal expansions and cross-reactivity/cross-protection, in subsequent exposures and responses to novel pathogens e.g. SARS-COV-2. “Consistent with reported serology, pre-pandemic children had class-switched convergent clones to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with weak cross-reactivity to other coronaviruses….these results highlight the prominence of early childhood B cell clonal expansions and cross-reactivity for future responses to novel pathogens”. These two points may help explain why children are not candidates for the COVID-vaccines and may (are) well immune and can be considered ‘vaccinated’. “Giving them a dangerous vaccine has virtually no benefit but significant downsides (like death)”.
3) We would also draw attention to the research in the Journal of Infection by Galow (April 2021) that examined household transmission rates in children and adults. They reported that there was “no transmission from an index-person < 18 years to a household contact < 18 years (0/7), but 26 transmissions from adult index-cases to household contacts < 18 years (26/71, SAR 0=37)”. These findings are in line with evidence that children are less at risk of developing severe illness courses, and also are far less susceptible and likely to spread and drive SARS-CoV-2 (references 1, 2, 3, 4).
18 August 2021. . Pre-activated antiviral innate immunity in the upper airways controls early SARS-CoV-2 infection in children By J. Loske, J. Röhmel, S. Lukassen, S. Stricker, V. G. Magalhães, J. Liebig, R. L. Chua, L. Thürmann, M. Messingschlager, A. Seegebarth, B. Timmermann, S. Klages, M. Ralser, B. Sawitzki, L. E. Sander, V. M. Corman, C. Conrad, S. Laudi, M. Binder, S. Trump, R. Eils, M. A. Mall & I. Lehmann Nature Biotechnology (2021) Abstract: Children have reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rates and a substantially lower risk for developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 compared with adults. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying protection in younger age groups remain unknown. Here we characterize the single-cell transcriptional landscape in the upper airways of SARS-CoV-2-negative (n = 18) and age-matched SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 24) children and corresponding samples from adults (n = 44) ...
along with less expression of ACE 2 receptors than adults... https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2766522 Patel and https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2766524
AstraZeneca Vaccine Developer: COVID Herd Immunity ‘Not a Possibility,’ Believes Virus Will Become Seasonal. August 11, 2021
video (38 min): Dr. McCullough with David Gornoski on A Neighbor's Choice: Treatment Success with COVID-19, Concerns over Vaccine Rollout. Discusses the effectiveness of natural immunity. August 7, 2021.
Why Are Globalists And Governments So Desperate For 100% Vaccination Rates? Aug 01, 2021. ... Why are they so desperate for every single person in the world to get the mRNA jab? ... After all, the average (IFR) death rate of covid is a mere 0.26% of those infected (this is a stat that the media consistently and deliberately refuses to mention to the public). This means that 99.7% of the public is in NO danger from covid whether they are vaccinated or not. ...Do the vaccines ensure better odds? Well, according to recent statistics from Massachusetts, not necessarily, as they report over 5100 infections and 80 deaths of fully vaccinated patients. The media keeps telling us that only the unvaccinated are dying, but this is a lie, like so many other lies they have been peddling when it comes to covid. So, what’s the point of taking an experimental vaccine if the death rate of the virus is so low and the jab doesn’t necessarily protect you anyway? ... There is no point. The science and the stats do not support it. The vaccines can’t even be credited with the decline in infections and deaths this year; the numbers plunged in January – Only 5% of the population was vaccinated by February. The only explanation for this is that the population hit herd immunity many months ago. Remember when governments said that they needed 70% herd immunity or vaccination to stop the lockdowns and mandates? The goalposts have been moves several times and the government “science” changes monthly. Now they claim herd immunity doesn’t matter and demand 100% vaccination. ...We must ask the question again – Why the relentless government push for total vaccine saturation? It’s not saving lives, and the mandates remain regardless, so why? ... I can only posit theories based on the evidence at hand, but I think it’s clear to most of us that the vaccines are NOT about public health nor are they about saving lives. They are obviously about something else. ...As numerous virology and vaccine experts have warned over the past year, there is a great risk of harmful health side effects when it comes to experimental mRNA technology. Even one of the creators of mRNA vaccines has suggested that there are dangers in rolling out these gene
Natural Immunity After COVID-19 Found Durable and Robust. by Robert Carlson, MD. July 26, 2021
India Delta Data Contradicts Dems’ COVID Fear/Control Campaign. July 27, 2021. With India’s current vaccination rate of only about 6 percent, most diagnosed with Delta in that country have experienced cold-like symptoms.
"What we can conclude definitively is that strict mask-wearing (especially among health care workers) failed to stop the spread one bit," Horowitz wrote. "Yet now they have achieved herd immunity and burned out the virus with just 3% vaccination (now up to 6%) with roughly one-sixth the death rate of the U.S. and the U.K. and less than one-half that of Israel."
Delta Variant: Natural Immunity 700% Greater Protection Than Shot, Data from Israeli Govt. Shows. July 15, 2021. ...Israel’s channel 13 reports very preliminary data showing that the resurgence of COVID infections in Israel is being driven almost exclusively by those who never had prior infection – whether they are vaccinated or not.
Analysis from 200+ doctors and scientists of the actual calculated risks of Covid "vaccine" side effects versus the risks of a Covid infection by age group.
Reported Breakthrough Cases - Covid Vaccines may be causing Antibody Dependent Enhancement and No Immunity.
Interview on Ingraham Angle of Peter McCullough, MD, MPH Treatment and Natural Immunity Will See Us Through Delta Outbreak. July 23, 2021
Wednesday, July 14, 2021. Some of the voluminous evidence that prior infection confers good immunity while (Israel's Pfizer) vaccination does not
Natural infection vs vaccination: Which gives more protection? Nearly 40% of new COVID patients were vaccinated - compared to just 1% who had been infected previously. Jul 13, 2021
Why Are Unvaccinated Children Healthier Than Vaccinated Children? By Microbiologist Brian S. Hooker, PhD, PE, Professor of Biology at Simpson University in Redding California, specializing in microbiology and biotechnology. A new peer-reviewed study suggests unvaccinated children fare better than vaccinated children. It’s received exactly zero mainstream media coverage. See Miller’s Critical Review of Vaccine Studies: 400 Important Scientific Papers Summarized for Parents and Researchers and The Journal of Translational Science article, “Health effects in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, with covariates for breastfeeding status and type of birth” June 12, 2021.
Unvaccinated Children Are Healthier By Dr. William H. Gaunt, NMD, and Spencer M. Gaunt, RN. Health outcomes in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children, William Gaunt, N.D., has an excellent article summarizing some of the science. See also Relative Incidence of Office Visits and Cumulative Rates of Billed Diagnoses Along the Axis of Vaccination in The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dr. Peter McCullough Interview - COVID Vaccine Agenda & The Rush To Suppress Alternative Treatments. July 9, 2021. Joining me today is Dr. Peter McCullough, here to discuss the COVID-19 vaccine push and how this agenda has overshadowed, whether by ignorance or dishonesty, the viable and efficacious alternative treatments that many experts have been trying to call attention to since the beginning of the COVID crisis. Source Links Can Be Found Here: https://www.thelastamericanvagabond.com/dr-peter-mccullough-interview-covid-vaccine-agenda-rush-suppress-alternative-treatments
Dr. Sucharit Bhakdi: URGENT! Some good news, and some troubling news. July 8, 2021. Dr. Bhakdi explains clearly, based on new scientific evidence:
- Your immune system is your best defence against SARS-CoV-2, and indeed all coronaviruses.
- If you have been infected, even if you experienced no symptoms at all, you are immune to all variants.
- We have already reached herd immunity.
- There is no scientific reason to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2. There is simply no benefit and the rollout must be stopped.
Scientific literature references for Dr. Bhakdi's presentation:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352396421002036 (v important DK)
response to mRNA vacc. +++
https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciab465/6279075 (key spike and IgG after vacc)
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.005 (third IgG response to vaccine paper)
Interview with Marc Girardot: Natural Immunity. July 5, 2021 Natural immunity vs Covid-19 vaccine-induced immunity – an Interview with Marc Girardot from PANDA
Pre-existing polymerase-specific T cells expand in abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2 infection. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.26.21259239 July 1, 2021. This Swadling paper shows healthcare workers can develop a T-cell immunity response without clinical infection or antibodies. Explains once into the pandemic there were never hospital major outbreaks. More biologic rationale for the tremendous herd immunity we are seeing in many regions.
Unvaccinated Children Are Healthier. July 2, 2021. People favor information which reinforces their pre-existing beliefs and avoid contradictory information. This is called “Selective Exposure Theory.” People reject information contrary to their beliefs. But the truth is that vaccines are dangerous. We are over-vaccinating America’s children. And unvaccinated children are far healthier than vaccinated children. Read about some of the studies and data.
Data analysis: Oh Stop The Stupid! The screamfest on "variants!" when it comes to Covid, especially Delta, is outrageous. June 23, 2021. There is utterly no reason to be afraid of the Delta "variant" unless you are scared of the sniffles.
06/16/21 Physician: ‘Fanaticism’ — Not Science — Governs CDC’s Aggressive Push to Vaccinate Even Those With Natural Immunity Public health insiders increasingly are calling out the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention over the “insanity” of pushing COVID vaccines on people who have already acquired natural immunity.
Previously infected people ‘unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination’: study The researchers called ‘into question the necessity to vaccinate those who have already had SARS-CoV-2 infection.’ Jun 11, 2021
video: Former CSO/VP of Allergy And Respiratory Research, Pfizer, Inc. Michael Yeadon talks about the lies we've been told re. COVID and SARS-COV-2, including about natural immunity and vaccines. June 10, 2021. The start of his interview is at about 1 h 30 m in this video: https://thehighwire.com/videos/episode-219-in-harms-way/
Fauci's Doubletalk on Treatment, Lockdowns, Masks, Immunity, & More. June 4, 2021. Rumble — Laura Ingraham's "Medicine Cabinet," featuring Peter McCullough, MD, MPH; Harvey Risch, MD, PhD; & Jay Bhattacharya, MD, PhD, discuss what Tony Fauci got wrong on a myriad of COVID related policies... and the disastrous results.
Necessity of COVID-19 Vaccination in Previously Infected Individuals: A Retrospective Cohort Study. June 1, 2021. by Nabin K. Shrestha, Patrick C. Burke, Amy S. Nowacki, Paul Terpeluk, Steven M. Gordon doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.01.21258176 A prominent former Framingham epidemiologist and C19 leader Dr. Andy Bostom. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection remained almost zero among previously infected unvaccinated subjects. Thus, it is clear in healthcare workers who undoubtedly get more SARS-CoV-2 exposure than average, that there is ZERO risk of reinfection. Vaccination of COVID-19 survivors who are being harmed with mRNA and adenviral DNA injections. About 25% of those volunteering for vaccination have previously had the illness and recovered! Preprint from medRxiv, 04 Jun 2021 "Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study."
Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity — Antibody testing and proof of prior infection can allow more people to return to normal by Jeffrey Klausner, MD, MPH, and Noah Kojima, MD. May 28, 2021
A majority of uninfected adults show preexisting antibody reactivity against SARS-CoV-2. April 22, 2021. Abdelilah Majdoubi 1 2 , Christina Michalski 1 2 , Sarah E O'Connell 3 , Sarah Dada 1 2 , Sandeep Narpala 3 , Jean Gelinas 4 5 , Disha Mehta 4 6 , Claire Cheung 1 2 , Dirk Fh Winkler 7 , Manjula Basappa 3 , Aaron C Liu 1 2 8 , Matthias Görges 1 6 , Vilte E Barakauskas 9 , Mike Irvine 1 , Jennifer Mehalko 10 , Dominic Esposito 10 , Inna Sekirov 9 11 , Agatha N Jassem 9 11 , David M Goldfarb 1 2 12 , Steven Pelech 7 13 , Daniel C Douek 3 , Adrian B McDermott 3 , Pascal M Lavoie 1 2 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119195/
Dan JM, Mateus J, Kato Y, Hastie KM, Yu ED, Faliti CE, et al. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. Science [Internet]. 2021 Feb 5;371(6529). Available
Turner JS, Kim W, Kalaidina E, Goss CW, Rauseo AM, Schmitz AJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. Nature [Internet]. 2021 May 24; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4
Breton G, Mendoza P, Hagglof T, Oliveira TY, Schaefer-Babajew D, Gaebler C, et al. Persistent Cellular Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Dec 9; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.08.416636
Hall VJ, Foulkes S, Charlett A, Atti A, Monk EJM, Simmons R, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN). Lancet [Internet]. 2021 Apr 17;397(10283):1459–69. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00675-9
COVID infection elicits long-lasting immunity, nullifying worldwide vaccine push: study. 'We found antibody-producing cells in people 11 months after first symptoms. These cells will live and produce antibodies for the rest of people’s lives. That’s strong evidence for long-lasting immunity.' May 31, 2021
-- Bertoletti et al., Oxford Open Immunology, February 23, 2021
"Data now suggest that the majority of infected individuals develop robust and long-lasting T cell immunity, which has implications for the durability of immunity and future vaccine approaches....
"That the majority of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were activated by non-S [non-spike protein] viral epitopes has implications for vaccination in populations that have experienced prior SARS-CoV-2 infections."
-- Jagannathan and Wang, Nature Immunology, April 19, 2021
"Overall, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans."
-- Turner et al., Nature, May 24, 2021
"Many people who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 will probably make antibodies against the virus for most of their lives. So suggest researchers who have identified long-lived antibody-producing cells in the bone marrow of people who have recovered from COVID-19.
"The study provides evidence that immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection will be extraordinarily long-lasting...."
-- Callaway, Nature, May 27, 2021
"Overall, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune response in humans."
Podcast with Geert Vanden Bossche & Bret Weinstein. Apr 22, 2021. Innate versus adaptive immunity are described. Immune escape is described. Vaccinated people are shedding and spreading the virus. Geert Vanden Bossche is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine who has specialist expertise in virology and vaccinology, Geert has worked in industry in the construction of vaccines, and in the non profit sector working to bring immunity to larger numbers of people. Find Geert on his website: https://www.geertvandenbossche.org/
ICAN DEMANDS CALIFORNIA LIFT RESTRICTIONS ON INDIVIDUALS THAT HAVE RECOVERED FROM COVID-19. May 4, 2021. Recently, California has announced changes to its Blueprint for a Safer Economy. These updates include additional “freedoms” afforded to those who have been vaccinated with no mention of those who have already had and recovered from COVID-19. ... Given that the immunity offered by having had COVID-19 is more efficacious and more robust than from the vaccine, ICAN explained to California that its policy of loosening restrictions for those that have been vaccinated for COVID-19, but not for those that have had COVID-19, is unscientific and illegal. In contrast to having had COVID-19, there is noevidence to prove that the COVID-19 vaccines prevent infection or transmission.
Recovered from Covid-19? Your immune system may fight coronavirus variants. Instead of producing antibodies all the time, the immune system creates memory B cells that recognise the coronavirus, and quickly unleash a new round of antibodies. January 26, 2021
January 26, 2021. Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19
Eminent doc: Media censored COVID-19 early treatment options that could have reduced fatalities by 85%. Dr. Peter McCullough also explained that given an 80% level of herd immunity, broad vaccination has ‘no scientific, clinical or safety rationale.’ Thu Apr 8, 2021 ... “People who develop COVID have complete and durable immunity. And (that’s) a very important principle: complete and durable. You can't beat natural immunity. You can't vaccinate on top of it and make it better. There's no scientific, clinical or safety rationale for ever vaccinating a COVID-recovered patient. There's no rationale for ever testing a COVID-recovered patient,” he continued... “My wife and I are COVID-recovered. Why do we go through the testing outside? There's absolutely no rationale (for such testing).” ... “There's plenty of COVID-recovered patients. Let them forgo the vaccine and let people who are clamoring for it get it. But at 80 percent herd immunity, in the vaccine trials fewer than one percent … in the placebo actually get COVID. Fewer than one percent. The vaccine is going to have a one percent public health impact. That's what the data says. It's not going to save us, we’re already 80 percent herd immune,” he said.
Britain Will Achieve Herd Immunity on Monday. April 8, 2021.
“The most likely duration of immunity to a respiratory virus like SARS CoV-2 is multiple years. Why do I say that? We actually have the data for a virus that swept through parts of the world seventeen years ago called SARS, and remember SARS CoV-2 is 80% similar to SARS, so I think that’s the best comparison that anyone can provide.
“The evidence is clear: These very clever cellular immunologists studied all the people they could get hold of who had survived SARS 17 years ago. They took a blood sample, and they tested whether they responded or not to the original SARS and they all did; they all had perfectly normal, robust T cell memory. They were actually also protected against SARS CoV-2, because they’re so similar; it’s cross immunity.
“So, I would say the best data that exists is that immunity should be robust for at least 17 years. I think it’s entirely possible that it is lifelong. The style of the responses of these people’s T cells were the same as if you’ve been vaccinated and then you come back years later to see if that immunity has been retained. So I think the evidence is really strong that the duration of immunity will be multiple years, and possibly lifelong.”
How Broad is Covid Immunity? March 2021
How Worried Should We Be About the Variants? March 2021. by Dr Michael Yeadon, Scientific Board member of Panda, Expert in Allergy & Respiratory (A&R) Therapeutic/PhD in Biochemistry and Toxicology, Former Chief Scientific Officer at Pfizer A&R unit/CEO and Founder of Ziarco, 25 years experience in Drug Discovery/40 Full Papers/63 Abstracts/two Books/six Patents and Marc Girardot, Member of Panda, Senior Advisor in Biotech & Automotive/INSEAD MBA, Advisor to an anti-Cancer therapeutic vaccine company/Ex-Global Lead of Cisco’s IBSG Automotive, 30 years of experience in Industry, High Tech and Biotech/two Patents. Snippets include:
To date, no robust scientific evidence proves that any of the variants identified are more transmissible or deadly than the original... Prior immunity gained from the original SARS-CoV-2 should work perfectly well against any new ‘mutant variant’, given the 99.7% sequence similarity.... mRNA vaccines currently used for vaccination – Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna – present the immune system with a large repertoire of targets, if not quite as large as a natural immune response. This is even more true of more traditional vaccines – Russia’s Sputnik and China’s Sinovac – which present an even wider repertoire. ... Many seem to have benefited from a form of immunity even though they had never met the actual virus, nor been vaccinated. These have gained their immunity from past epidemics and make up the large contingent of asymptomatics. The Tübingen University Hospital near Stuttgart, Germany found as much as 81% of its samples were carrying pre-existing specific T cells. Most likely, past common cold coronaviruses have – in effect – played an immunisation role against SARS-CoV-2. The same immunological mechanism has been proven to exist for influenza also... Some are advocating the vaccination of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Natural immunisation being the ultimate form of vaccination, we see absolutely no scientific nor medical justification for such a procedure. Even past infections by other forms of common cold coronaviruses have been found to protect from SARS-CoV-2. Injecting a vaccine should never be considered a trivial event. The decision should be based on a well thought out risk-benefit analysis... The evidence above supports that immunity evasion – though a theoretical possibility – is very unlikely. Mutant variants, emerging overseas or domestically, are an inevitable biological reality once a virus is in the population. Closing international borders will not stop new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus circulating in the population. It is a futile endeavour with no scientific basis ... Although vaccines could be helpful for patients with mildly deficient immune systems, they would most likely not save very old patients with advanced immune senescence. Thus overconfidence in vaccine effectiveness for the very old could be a major risk, and mitigation treatments and immune boosting strategies should instead be contemplated.
Amish community in Pennsylvania becomes first in US to achieve herd immunity after reopening churches led to 90% of households being infected with the virus last year March 2021
- The Plain community in Lancaster County has become the 'first to achieve herd immunity,' according to a local administrator of a medical center in the area
- Allen Hoover of the Parochial Medical Center said that 90% of households became infected with virus when they resumed church services late last spring
- As Hoover observed, faith in herd immunity prompted members of community to relax on key mitigation efforts such as masking and social distancing
Immunity & COVID-19 - British Society for Immunology February 2021
Israeli study boosts belief post-COVID immunity stays when antibodies fade Massive immune response witnessed when small cohort of previously infected people get 1st COVID-19 vaccine dose, indicating they are well ahead of the game, Bar-Ilan team says. By Nathan Jeffay February 2021 https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.6.2100096
Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies Wen Shi Lee 1, Adam K. Wheatley, Stephen J. Kent, and Brandon J. DeKosky. October 2020. ADE has been observed in SARS, MERS and other human respi-ratory virus infections including RSV and measles, which suggests a real risk of ADE for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and antibody-based interventions.
COVID 19 Immunity Research. You could be IMMUNE to COVID. Medicine with Dr. Moran. September 2020.
The Innate Immune System webinar and live Q&A with Dr. Zach Bush, Dr. Cindy Fallon, Dr. John Gildea, Dr. Lee Cowden and Dr. Peter Cummings. Jan 18, 2021. A break down of the intricacies and beauty of how our innate immune system functions and flows, unearthed empowering facts on the latest scientific findings on the virome, historical framing of germ warfare and how it applies to today’s mindset toward the pandemic and so much more from top experts across various fields within the human health realm. View the full feature on the Innate Immune System along with resources mentioned in this webinar: https://zachbushmd.com/innate-immune-... If you are looking to dive deeper and prioritize your health, sign up for the Intrinsic Health Series: https://www.intrinsichealthseries.com Knowledge Base : SLEEP module: View the webinar replay, video and blog on how critical sleep is to your immune health: https://zachbushmd.com/knowledge-sleep/
Human immune system has a 99.74% success rate against COVID19 Alex Jones with Del Bigtree, August 2020
How ‘killer’ T cells could boost COVID immunity in face of new variants. In the race against emerging coronavirus variants, researchers are looking beyond antibodies for clues to lasting protection from COVID-19. February 2021.
Covid-19: Asymptomatic cases may not be infectious, Wuhan study indicates BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4695 (Published 01 December 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4695
The Covid mRNA and DNA vaccines do not provide any mucosal immunity that would do more to prevent infections and spread of COVID disease. Mucosal Immunity in COVID-19: A Neglected but Critical Aspect of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Michael W. Russell, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States, Zina Moldoveanu2, Pearay L. Ogra, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States and Jiri Mestecky, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States. 30 November 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.611337 The mucosal immune system is the largest component of the entire immune system, having evolved to provide protection at the main sites of infectious threat: the mucosae. As SARS-CoV-2 initially infects the upper respiratory tract, its first interactions with the immune system must occur predominantly at the respiratory mucosal surfaces, during both inductive and effector phases of the response. However, almost all studies of the immune response in COVID-19 have focused exclusively on serum antibodies and systemic cell-mediated immunity including innate responses.
Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections Quan-Xin Long, Xiao-Jun Tang, Qiu-Lin Shi, Qin Li, Hai-Jun Deng, Jun Yuan, Jie-Li Hu, Wei Xu, Yong Zhang, Fa-Jin Lv, Kun Su, Fan Zhang, Jiang Gong, Bo Wu, Xia-Mao Liu, Jin-Jing Li, Jing-Fu Qiu, Juan Chen & Ai-Long Huang in Nature Medicine
Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection Jennifer M. Dan, Jose Mateus, Yu Kato1, Kathryn M. Hastie, Esther Dawen Yu, Caterina E. Faliti, Alba Grifoni, Sydney I. Ramirez, Sonya Haupt, April Frazier, Catherine Nakao, Vamseedhar Rayaprolu, Stephen A. Rawlings, Bjoern Peters, Florian Krammer, Viviana Simon, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Davey M. Smith, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3563Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Shane Crotty in Science Feb 2021:
SARS-CoV-2 re-infection risk in Austria. February 13, 2021. Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection is comparable with the highest available estimates on vaccine efficacies.
Immune system’s T cells can mount attacks against many coronavirus targets — even on new variants, LJI says By La Jolla Institute for Immunology. January 2021. A new study led by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology suggests that T cells try to fight SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, by targeting a broad range of sites on the virus. By attacking the virus from many angles, the body has the tools to potentially recognize different SARS-CoV-2 variants.
Covid-19: Do many people have pre-existing immunity? British Medical Journal 2020; 370 doi: September 2020 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3563
Impact of age, ethnicity, sex and prior infection status on immunogenicity following a single dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: real-world evidence from healthcare workers, Israel, December 2020 to January 2021
Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers Dec.2020. Sheila F. Lumley, B.M., B.Ch., Denise O’Donnell, B.Sc., Nicole E. Stoesser, M.B., B.S., D.Phil., Philippa C. Matthews, F.R.C.P., D.Phil., Alison Howarth, Ph.D., Stephanie B. Hatch, Ph.D., Brian D. Marsden, D.Phil., Stuart Cox, Tim James, Ph.D., Fiona Warren, B.Sc., Liam J. Peck, D.Phil., Thomas G. Ritter, B.A., Zoe de Toledo, M.Sc., Laura Warren, David Axten, B.A., Richard J. Cornall, M.D., D.Phil., E. Yvonne Jones, D.Phil., David I. Stuart, Ph.D., Gavin Screaton, B.M., B.Ch., D.Phil., Daniel Ebner, B.Sc., Sarah Hoosdally, Ph.D., Meera Chand, M.B., B.S., Derrick W. Crook, F.R.C.Path., Anne-Marie O’Donnell, M.B., B.S., Christopher P. Conlon, M.D., Koen B. Pouwels, Ph.D., A. Sarah Walker, Ph.D., Tim E.A. Peto, F.R.C.P., Susan Hopkins, F.R.C.P., Timothy M. Walker, M.B., B.S., D.Phil. Katie Jeffery, F.R.C.Path., Ph.D., and David W. Eyre, B.M., B.Ch., D.Phil. for the Oxford University Hospitals Staff Testing Group*
Vaccines can sometimes cause the disease they are supposed to eradicate: the world is currently facing an increasing spread of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks across parts of Africa, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. March 2020
Do some people have protection against the coronavirus? By Dr. Sanjay Gupta and Andrea Kane, CNN. August 2, 2020. Immunity is comprised of not just antibodies but various T cells -- cells that act as "memory" to foreign invaders. The good news, when it comes to this coronavirus, is that people who have never had any exposure to this virus may actually have some T-cell reactivity. A study that looked at blood that was collected between 2015 and 2018, well before the first Covid-19 infection, found some people had T cells that reacted to the virus.
We could ‘beat’ COVID-19 before a vaccine is ready By Alex Berenson August 25, 2020
Herd Immunity May Be Slowing Spread in U.S., As Study Finds 40 Percent Community Infection Provides Protection By Aristos Georgiou On 8/14/20
New York’s latest COVID antibody survey shows a rise in the Bronx and minority communities June 16, 2020 By Dana Schulz
Johns Hopkins Doctor Thinks COVID Will Be Largely Gone By April, Half of U.S. Has Herd Immunity By Katherine Fung On 2/19/21
Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in Northern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, and Free State provinces of South Africa in January 2021 Extrapolating from antibody testing on blood donors, the researchers found antibody levels of 63% in Eastern Cape province (EC), 46% in Free State (FS), 52% in KwaZulu Natal (ZN) and 32% in Northern Cape (NC). These figures were between 15 and 22 times higher than the percentage of the population that had tested positive for the virus to date.
... there is nothing unusual about a COVID-19 epidemic going into spontaneous decline, even with antibody prevalence much lower than in South Africa. Places with few restrictions such as Sweden, Florida and South Dakota have also seen spikes fall almost as quickly as they have risen, and at much lower antibody levels – and in the middle of winter, too.
If anyone is on an SSRI anti-depressant like prozac, and / or is HLA-B27 positive, they may have significantly stronger immunity than "normal" people... HLA-B27 is common in auto-immune disease such as Rheumatic Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis, If natural immunity can win in court - maybe the clinical trials going on for prozac and HLA-B* genes will win eventually too. People have always (wrongly) assumed that if you are auto-immune, you need the vaccine more. Turns out HLA-B27 is superior to the other HLA-B* genes in reducing hospitalization, intubation, and death. GOOD NEWS! Prozac study: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-021-01021-4
HLA-b27 research https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820778/
HLA-B*46:01 is expected to have the fewest possible binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, indicating that individuals with this allele could be especially vulnerable to COVID-19, as had previously been seen for SARS. HLA-B*15:03, on the other hand, demonstrated the greatest ability to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides shared among common human coronaviruses, indicating that this allele may allow cross-protective T-cell dependent immunity (30). This is a more intriguing mechanism, as HLA-B*1503 appears to be prevalent in West Africa and most countries with high endemic malaria in the World Health Organization(WHO) African Region (37).
The published data seem to suggest also a possible role of the HLA-B27 serotype in modulating SARS-CoV-2 infection . B27 serotype mediates protection against HCV and HIV . The same HLA markers may be also associated with susceptibility/resistance to all SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and HCV, may have a common general immune mechanism against viral infections. Indeed, all the three viruses are RNA viruses. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 and HCV are positive-sense RNA viruses, which share striking sequence and structural homology in their RNA polymerase and protease, central components for viral replication [70, 71]. Liver diseases have also been reported in COVID-19 patients, more prevalently in severe cases . On the other hand, lymphopenia is the clinical hallmark of HIV infection, associated with increased COVID-19 severity